Damage to the Central Nervous Systems (CNS) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) seems to be mainly due to chronic inflammation of the CNS with superimposed bouts of inflammatory activity by the adaptive immune system. The immune mediated damage can be amplified by neurodegenerative mechanisms in damaged axons including anterograde or retrograde axonal or transynaptic degeneration, synaptic pruning and neuronal or oligodendrocyte death. As such, it is highly unlikely that CNS damage can be prevented using only immunomodulatory drugs.
For this reason, neuroprotection, aimed at preventing axonal, neuronal, myelin, and oligodendrocyte damage and cell death in the presence of this toxic microenvironment is highly pursued in MS and other demyelinating diseases. Neuroprotective strategies target different processes including oxidative stress, ionic imbalance (sodium, potassium or calcium), energy depletion, trophic factor support, metabolites balance, excitotoxicity, apoptosis, remyelination, etc.
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Although none of these strategies have translated into approved drugs to date, improvement in the understanding of underlying biology, in the design of clinical trials specific for assessing neuroprotection, and new technologies for developing novel therapies for neuroprotection suggest a new avenue for treating MS, Optic Neuritis or Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO). Several of these therapies are now entering clinical phases and if successful, such strategies would improve patients’ quality of life, and will be even more critical for patients with progressive MS.
In the event that such therapies target natural repair mechanisms rather than disease specific processes, they can potentially be useful for other brain diseases such as stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, brain trauma or epilepsy.
Neuroprotection is involvement capable to affect the etiology or the pathogenesis of the neurodegenerative diseases. They delay the onset or the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroprotective products are medications that protect the brain neurons from deterioration and injury. These products are used in the cure of several central nervous system complications such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and traumatic brain injuries among others. Neuroprotective agents in clinical pipelines comprise small-molecule drugs, gene and cell therapies, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and other agents.
North America is expected to contribute to the largest share in the neuroprotection market in the coming years, owing to factors such as, various market players operate in this region. The European region is expected to hold the second largest market for the neuroprotection. Asia Pacific is anticipated to be the fastest growing market as the due to the growing number of the neurological disorders in the countries, effect of pricing pressure due to grown competition amongst important brands, rise of generic products and growing number of regional players who are able to provide products at much lower prices.
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Some of the key players influencing the market are:- Eli Lilly and Company, Allergan plc, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd., Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Daiichi Sankyo Company, Novartis AG, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, AstraZeneca plc, Biogen Inc., Astrocyte Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and other prominent players.
Neuroprotection market is segmented on the basis of product and application. Based on product, the neuroprotection market has been segmented into free radical trapping agents (antioxidants), apoptosis inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, glutamate antagonists (anti-excitotoxic agents), metal ion chelators and others. The application segment is classified as treatment and prevention.