Maintenance of Fish Health in Aquaculture: Review of Epidemiological Approaches for Prevention and Control of Infectious Disease of Fish

vaccine is used to establish or improve the immunity against a specific disease or group of diseases. In aquaculture practices, there is always a chance of pathogenic outbreaks, which will affect the production of the farm. Aquaculture vaccines are used to protect the fishes from any pathogen.

Vaccination is an easy, effective and preventive method of protecting fish from diseases. Vaccination is a process by which a protective immune response is induced in an animal by administration of vaccines. Vaccines are preparations of antigens derived from pathogenic organisms, rendered non-pathogenic by various means, which will stimulate immune system of the animal to increase the resistance to the disease on natural encountered with pathogens. Once stimulated by a vaccine, the antibody-producing cells, called B lymphocytes, remain sensitized and ready to respond to the agent should it ever gain entry to the body.

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Importance of vaccination In Aquaculture :-

  • Vaccines are not the same as antibiotics and generally will not be effective for stopping a disease outbreak once it has begun.
  • Vaccines are used to prevent a specific disease outbreak from occurring and are not a therapy.
  • Its efficiency exists for a longer duration with one or more treatments.
  • No toxic side effects and healthy fish have better growth performance.
  • No accumulation of toxic residues
  • Pathogen will not develop resistance.
  • Theoretically it can control any bacterial and viral disease.
  • No environmental impact.

as,aquaculture vaccines market is anticipated to grow in the forecast period owing to growth in aquaculture farming practices, regulations and restrictions on the use of antibiotics in aquaculture, increasing research and development activities and growing prevalence of viral and bacterial infections in aquaculture species.

Aquaculture vaccines is segmented based on the vaccine type, application, species type, and route of administration. Based on the vaccine type, the market is classified as activated vaccines, live vaccines, and DNA vaccines. Based on application, the market is divided into bacterial infections, viral infections, fungal infections, and parasitic infections. On the basis of species type, the aquaculture vaccines market is classified as sturgeon, trout, seabass, carp, salmon, and other species type. Based on the route of administration market is classified as injection vaccination, immersion vaccination, spray vaccination, and oral vaccination .

The report provides a detailed overview of the industry including both qualitative and quantitative information. It provides overview and forecast of the global aquaculture vaccines market based on various segments. It also provides market size and forecast estimates from year 2017 to 2027 with respect to five major regions, namely; North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific (APAC), Middle East and Africa (MEA) and South & Central America. The aquaculture vaccines market by each region is later sub-segmented by respective countries and segments. The report covers analysis and forecast of 18 countries globally along with current trend and opportunities prevailing in the region.

Key Companies In Vaccine Industry:- Benchmark Holdings,HIPRA, Intervet Inc. (Merck & Co. Inc.),Nisseiken Co, Ridgeway Biologicals Ltd, Tecnovax, Vaccibody AS, VETERQUIMICA SA, Virbac, Zoetis, And Others.

During the last two decades vaccination has become established as an important method for prevention of infectious diseases in farmed fish, mainly salmonid species. So far, most commercial vaccines have been inactivated vaccines administered by injection or immersion. Bacterial infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria such as Vibrio sp., Aeromonas sp., and Yersinia sp. have been effectively controlled by vaccination. With furunculosis, the success is attributed to the use of injectable vaccines containing adjuvants. Vaccines against virus infections, including infectious pancreatic necrosis, have also been used in commercial fish farming. Vaccines against several other bacterial and viral infections have been studied and found to be technically feasible. The overall positive effect of vaccination in farmed fish is reduced mortality. However, for the future of the fish farming industry it is also important that vaccination contributes to a sustainable biological production with negligible consumption of antibiotics.

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